Articles in database from Lawrence Tribune: 3
Speer & Covel, publishers and proprietors. Daily and weekly. Tribune Block, 51 Massachusetts Street, Lawrence.
**Reminiscences: Lawrence, the Historic City.
It is hardly necessary to say a word about the causes which led to the original settlement by New England people - certainly not to older people. But there may be among our young readers persons not familiar with the organization of Kansas Territory.
In the Congressional session of 1852-53, Senator S. A. Douglas of Illinois, as chairman of the committee on public lands, introduced a bill to organize the Territory of Nebraska, embracing all the present states of Kansas and Nebraska as well as all the territory west of those states to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. It failed to pass and at the next session he introduced what was known as the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. This bill provided for the organization of two territories, Kansas and Nebraska - Kansas embracing its present limits north and south and extending west to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. It repealed the Missouri Compromise, which limited slavery forever against existing further north than 36 degrees and 30 minutes, and provided for what was known as the principle of "Squatter Sovereignty," whereby the people of the new territories were to decide their "domestic institutions in their own way." On the part of anti-slavery men, it was insisted, however, that the slaveholders were given special privileges, the tendency of which was to establish slavery in the new territories; and the slaveholders and the pro-slavery administrations of Pierce and Buchanan sustained the doctrine that under the Organic Act and the United States Constitution slavery was guaranteed until the territories should organize state governments.
This much seems necessary as a preliminary statement of the situation.
The repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the organization of Kansas and Nebraska, on the basis stated, created the most intense excitement throughout the country. One of the results was the organization of what was known as the New England Emigrant Aid Society, the avowed object of which was to assist emigration to Kansas by concentrated action, the procurement of cheap transportation, the erection of mills and the necessary machinery and such other assistance as the concentration of capital and organized energy could afford to a new settlement.
The First Party - The first Pioneer Party organized by the Emigrant Aid Society left Massachusetts July 17, 1854, for the Territory of Kansas, and consisted of the following persons: E. Davenport, lawyer; N. Philbrick, mechanic; Ezra Conant, mechanic; Ben Meriam, mechanic; Edwin White, mechanic; G. W. Hewes, mechanic; W. H. Hewes, merchant; Geo. Thatcher, sportsman; John Maley, mechanic; J. W. Russel, mechanic; A. Holman, mechanic; J. D. Stevens, mechanic; F. Fuller, architect; J. F. Morgan, farmer; A. H. Mallory, speculator; S. C. Harrington, physician; S. F. Tappan, reporter; J. C. Archibald, builder; J. M. Jones, farmer; Edwin White, mechanic; all of Massachusetts. Augustus Hilpath, laborer; D. R. Anthony, banker; John Doy, physician; H. Cameron, farmer; all of New York. A. Fowler, farmer; Oscar Harlow, merchant; G. W. Hutchinson, speculator; G. W. Goss, farmer; all of Vermont. Arthur Gunther, clerk, Wisconsin.
This list embraces four or five who joined the party at other points. They arrived at St. Louis on Saturday, July 22d, and left that place on Tuesday, July 25th, and arrived in Kansas City July 28th about sundown. They left Kansas City with ox teams on Saturday, July 29th, at 11 o'clock p.m. and traveled all night, and halting about 9 o'clock a.m. Sunday. They arrived at the present site of the State University Building on Tuesday about noon August 1, 1854, and dined on the "Back Bone"* and then went down into the unfledged city and pitched their tents on the west side of Massachusetts street, between Winthrop and Henry streets. For this statement we are indebted to Mr....Fuller, who took it from his diary. (*This was the name by which the ridge from university westward was known.)
Charles H. Branscomb and James Blood, the former as agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company and the latter on his own enterprise, had previously explored the country and recommended the location at Lawrence. On the same day of the settlement Branscomb purchased the "claim" of Clarke Stearns, whose cabin stood at the north end of what is now Massachusetts street.
These were the men who founded a city, which in its history has become famous throughout the world. Around this little handful of adventurous pioneers came the gathering hosts of freedom-loving people who inaugurated resistance to the institution of slavery which culminated in the greatest war the world ever saw, and the final overthrow of slavery and the proclamation of Universal Freedom throughout the American Nation.
Pioneer Meeting at St. Louis
St. Louis, July 24, 1854. A meeting of the Kansas party was held at the City Hotel this morning. Hugh Cameron was appointed chairman and E. Davenport secretary. On motion, Dr. John Doy, A. H. Mallory and D. R. Anthony were appointed a committee to express the sense of this party towards the Emigrant Aid Society, &c. The following resolutions were reported and unanimously adopted:
Resolved, That we, the entire number of the "Kansas Pioneer Party" from the New England and Middle States, have full confidence in the Emigrant Aid Company; and would recommend all persons intending to emigrate to Kansas to do so under their auspices.
Resolved, That we heartily thank the Emigrant Aid Company for organizing and for thus carrying out the objects for which they have been incorporated.
Resolved, That the officers and employees connected with the several railroad companies over which we have traveled have shown us great favor, and are entitled to and hereby receive our most hearty thanks.
Remarks were made on the above resolutions by nearly every member present, all expressing but one opinion of concurrence in them. It was also their opinion that no party numbering as many as this ever enjoyed better health - there not being a case of sickness in the whole company. H. Cameron, chairman.
First Threats of a Skirmish
At this juncture, great excitement prevailed on the slavery question, and threats of assault upon the new settlers were constantly made. On the night of the 30th of September, word came to "town" that a party of pro-slavery men had surrounded the house of Rev. Thomas Ferrill, a Free State Methodist preacher from Missouri, who resided on the old California road two miles west of the "city." At once an armed party went out to his assistance. Mr. Ferrill had a store with a considerable amount of goods. There was a good deal of preparation, but no fighting, and finally the assailants entered into stipulations of peace and the Free State men retired.
Tent Torn Down
On the first day of October, a tent of the Free State party was torn down - the instrument selected for the onslaught being a woman - but the men rallied to prevent its re-erection and about 20 armed Free State men rallied and took possession of the ground without a violent conflict. Notice, however, was given by the pro-slavery party that on the next day they would take possession of the town and "clean out" the whole "abolition crew." They came but, considering "discretion the better part of valor," did nothing more than renew threats of violence.
The Town Named
On the evening of the 29th of September, the bargain for the rights of the squatter Stearns was closed by the execution of an instrument of writing called a deed, and the payment of five hundred dollars and the delivery of possession of the log cabin.
On the night of the first of October, a meeting of the Town Association was held principally to consult on naming the town. The question of a name was pretty fully discussed.
S. N. Wood moved to call the town Sumner and supported his motion with some very appropriate remarks. He said that Senator Sumner had distinguished himself as a friend of the cause and that it would be a compliment which would not only be appreciated by him but by all the friends of freedom.
Mr. Mallory moved to amend the motion by calling the town Flat Rock. He said the crossing here was known by the Indians and by all who had ever crossed the plains as Flat Rock Crossing, and the locality would re recognized.
Dr. Robinson moved to amend the amendment by calling the town Lawrence. (We call Governor Robinson by the name by which he was then known because we think it more appropriate when representing the action of these times than to use the title afterward conferred on him by the suffrage of the people in his election as the first governor of Kansas, both under the Topeka constitution, to which we shall refer in the future, and under our present state constitution.) He said that Amos A. Lawrence of Boston, while he was a conservative Whig, had shown great liberality towards this colony of settlers and that he was sure he would contribute towards establishing a college. (Hon. Amos A. Lawrence afterwards donated the sum of $10,000 for that purpose, which was eventually bestowed upon the State University.) He believe that it was due to him that the town should be named in honor of the man who had done more than any other man to encourage the New England pioneers of Kansas.
The motion of Dr. Robinson prevailed by a very large majority and the name of Lawrence was inserted in the blank in the constitution and by-laws of the Association, and the organization was named the Lawrence Association.
Founding of Franklin
About the 20th of July, ------ Wallace an
The Colored Radical is the title of a paper, the first issue of which will appear on Emancipation Day, Aug. 1st. It will be edited by Rev. Mr. Henderson, well known in our city and throughout the state. It will be published in this city.
A Character. The Tribune office has a celebrity in it now. Mr. Peter B. Lee called in today to take a situation on the Colored Radical, which we are now getting out. He had worked on every book, bible, dictionary, magazine, novel, caricature, and newspaper since the invention of printing except a newspaper gotten up by colored men, and he was bound to add that to the variety of his situations....He has seen "all the world and the rest of mankind" and is still not happy. He has counted more railroad ties by his steps than any man in America. He has worked on the Tribune before and we are glad to see him. He can get work whenever he wants it because he is a splendid printer, but he is always in a hurry and can't stop. In short, he is a "tramp printer," a genial, wholesouled gentleman, who never stops tramping and never fails of a situation where good printers are appreciated. He is welcome in the Tribune office but he won't stay long.
Peter B. Lee, the "tramp printer," left this afternoon for the West. He shook us cordially by the hand and departed. He could stay no longer. He had helped get out the Colored Radical and he longed for variety. He had lingered in the "Historic City" for three days and he longed for the cool breezes and different type. He said, if we would get out a paper in the Japanese, Magyar or Pottawatomie language he would stay a few hours, but the monotony must be broken. He looked at us with a sad expression in one eye and a drop of old rye in the other and begged us to say nothing derogatory of his character in the public prints. We promised and we must stop our Faber or we may violate our pledge.
The Colored Radical has just made its appearance in this city. It is edited by Rev. T. W. Henderson, formerly pastor of the A.M.E. church of this city, now of Leavenworth. A. Williams, well known in Lawrence as an intelligent business man, has its business management. The paper will be an able exponent of the cause in which it is enlisted. Mr. Henderson is a man of fine literary acquirements, an able speaker and in every way a practical man, fully capable of competing with his white fellow laborers in the Republican party, and able and ready to meet his opponents in any field of contest.